9th + 10th Day (Century Count)

Hello, lovely people from every nook of this world. Today I am gonna share my experience about the sessions I was pursuing from last 10 days. In the last days of this college training, I have gained some knowledge related to Data Mining and WEKA tool. You can contact Google “Baba” to get acquainted with their  basic functionalities 😛 🙂

I am not gonna discuss about the basic terms related to Mining like Classification, Clustering, Pre-processing etc. One can look up about its definition (I have already suggested the contact :p)

I am here gonna focus on my thought, progress, changes in me and much more. Intially, I guess a year before when I was just a beginner in blogging trend (Still a learner), I used to copy-paste stuff or later on just reading and side by side writing in my language by taking help. So, I am narrating about the changes I have noticed in myself from being a copier to a learner then a writer (still emerging). Plus I am truly in love with this tranformation. It used to raise my confidence level and my trust to accomplish the things I intend for.

Apart from this I helped my fellow batchmates Amisha and Taman in common gmail settings related to reply snipping. For this, just got to settings and under Labs section, enable quote selected text. I also tried installing GUI for Postgresql i.e pgadminIII

 

sudo apt-get install postgresql-9.3-postgis-2.1

 

sudo apt-get install pgadmin3

After this, I have connected this GUI with localhost server.

sudo vim /etc/postgresql/9.x/main/pg_hba.conf

Change the line:

local   all             postgres                                md5

to

local   all             postgres                                trust

Error: I have even uncommented a Database line written before this by mistake. Later on, I commented it again. i.e

Database administrative login by Unix domain socket

Then, restart the server

sudo service postgresql restart

Now, login into psql and set a password

psql -U postgres

ALTER USER postgres with password 'new password';

Now, restart the server again.

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P.S : Yippie, Hit a century 😉

 

 

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7th & 8th Day

Ok, so this blog is in continuation to my previous blog related to making a website using WordPress. After setting WordPress environment and installing it on my system. I faced an error saying:

Enter your FTP/SSH Credentials.

I have used FileZilla for setting credentials. I have given my host address, user, and password for a quick connect. It worked 🙂

Furthur at the time of uploading my website on hostinger, I want to delete some of the old content I have already transferred over there. For this, I connect with FileZilla by adding credentials and deleted the stuff.

Later on, I faced error saying:

Unable to locate WordPress theme directory

Still in progress, but for an alternative, I get to know about Jekyll.

Jekyll is a static site generator. It’s simple, light-weight and one can have free hosting from gitlab or GitHub.

Apart from this, I get to know about “diff” command which can find the difference between two different files.

diff file1.txt file2.txt

Also, I was introduced to a Password manager software i.e LastPass

Do you ever get a problem in memorizing all of your passwords? We usually go for browser remembering, but it’s not much secure. Hence, here is a new software which saves your passwords and provides much more features. Though it’s free with limited functionality but is worth trying. (You can suggest any open-source password manager software in below comments 🙂)

Beside, A lecture was delivered regarding Aptitude, Interview and common things related to the placement session.

I have also upgraded cmake today.

sudo -E add-apt-repository -y ppa:george-edison55/cmake-3.x

sudo apt-get update

sudo apt-get install cmake 

The other day we were delivered a talk related to an Android Application. The product was used by municipal corporation and state govt mostly.

It’s related to clicking picture and sending the location of any such problem related to roads, bridges, garbage collection etc. which came under Municipal Judiciary and in this way there overhead to locate the problems will be relaxed. Common people can report through the App and then the action will be taken soon by municipal committee.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sixth Day (Time for a sixer)

Today the lecture was by Mr. Devgan from BHEL. He is an expert in his field from past 17 years and has delivered a session on Information Security today. He has done many projects accordingly.

In the beginning, we get to know about the basics of security. He put light on current issues like Ransomware, WannaCry ransomware attack (A malware attack which corrupts the system or data and demand for some payment in return.)

There are many other types of ransomware:

  • CRYPTO Ransomware (files vulnerable)
  • LOCKER Ransomware (device vulnerable) …..

He also talks about CDAC, which is Centre for development of advance computing. It’s an institute offering many courses and it organises campaigns on Information Security Awareness.

We get to know about the basic terms related to Security:

  • Confidentiality
  • Integrity
  • Digital Signature
  • SSL
  • Authentication
  • Non-Repudiation
  • Availability (Ensures about a handy environment related to hardware, software, connection etc.)

He also enlighted about Attacks on different layers in an OSI Model.

lay.jpg

One can always Google to learn in depth, as I am detailing about the terms which are new to me.

Many types of attacks can take place to disturb out system:

  • Interruption (Information will not be sent to the destined user)
  • Modification (Wrong data sent to the receiver i.e Integrity Vulnerable)
  • Interception (Third person is having eye on your data)
  • Fabrication (Authenticity vulnerable)
  • Repudiation (Tricking the authenticity)
  • Spoofing (Making a user jump to another website by spoofing links etc.)
  • Phishing (Sending bank related fake emails to get the information about the respective victim’s account.)
  • Dictionary Attack (To pursue using a very large set of words to identify the password. “That’s why it’s said to use a complicated password“)
  • Clickjacking(Manipulating the website links to make the user shift to another site.)
  • Tabnapping (A user is in a habit of opening no. of tabs simultaneously. If one of them is malfunctioned one and side by side he is accessing bank related information. Then, it will be at risk. Plus the malfunctioned site can enter into all other sites being active at that time.)
  • Stegobot (It can even detect data from an image. Hence, attack steganography technique.)

Apart from this, a new term I get to embark today is Botnet.

Example, If there is a hacker who wants to make any site like Amazon down for 2 days using Denial of Service (DOS), then he will make a script and will send that malfunctioned script to lakhs of users. It can be through e-mails depicting about “You have won a lottery, click here to claim”. All the persons clicking that link are inviting that script to get installed on their systems unknowingly.

Later on, The Bot master (Hacker) gives a command to hack Amazon and all those Bots (malfunctioned system) will start attacking Amazon site.

Plus, there is a robot.txt file through which websites can communicate with Web crawllers, robots etc. Also, this file gives permission to web crawlers (In the case of Google, Spiders) to read the website’s data and then show the results to the user.

Beside this, another way to hack systems is through Software Engineering.

It can be pursued in several ways like:

  • Dumpster Diving (Accesses trashed information, even passwords are sometimes written on sticky notes.)
  • Shoulder surfing (Back cameras for getting password information)
  • Persuasion (Fake calls, making a person pursue according to the hacker’s demand.)
  • Baiting (Similar to phishing, though difference comes in the usage of an item to entice persons. Example, an infected USB threw in a parking lounge and people took that and plug it with their systems. It may contain a malfunctioned script.)
  • Vishing (Related to phishing, but is done through Voice emails, calls etc. Example, Bank information related fake calls.)

One need to be alert and aware of the facts as there are numerous type of attacks which can infect your system.

       Identity Theft

It refers to the usage of another’s person Identity (name) to do some kind of illegal work. It can be done using Skimming attack (Example, even SIM Card can be used in this way and the person can make use of the victim’s number to pursue things. The victim is the one paying the full bill.)

For understanding, one can relate to Wifi password hacking and it’s usage for their need. But, it’s not a skimming attack purely.

Plus, I was encountered with a new term i.e Virtual Keyboards. As Keyloggers (S/W or H/W) is an attack which can record the key presses and can further detect the passwords. To resolve this type of attack, software component for users to enter characters is introduced called virtual keypad which enhances security level.

hjh

Also, the difference between a Magenetic stripe and chip-based card. Though, EMV-chip-based credit and debit cards are emerging nowadays because of their security levels. As they are having embedded microprocessor chips which protect the data. It’s named after it’s originators i.e Europay, MasterCard, and Visa.

chip

There are few other expressions:

  • Trojan: Trojan horse is a type of computer program which is inserted in any system to corrupt it.
  • Spyware: A Spyware is a kind of software program injected in a system which will give information about the user. It’s a kind of malware, not a virus. Though both are dangerous, there is a slight difference. Malware is not self-replicating. Hence, need user interference for clicking a fake link etc. to get injected.
  • Worm/Virus: These are self-replicating which doesn’t need human intervention to spread. eg, ILOVEYOU worm etc.

Nowadays, the concept of hacking is approaching towards Mobile market, as there are huge no. of users operating through their cell phones.

  • Bluejacking: It refers to sending unsolicited messages through Bluetooth to enables devices which can inject the virus int the system. It’s done using OBEX (Object Exchange) Protocol that facilitates the exchange of binary objects among devices.
  • Bluesnarfing: It refers to the theft of information like messages, Address book etc.

Hence, one should be acquainted with the security measures.

 

 

 

 

 

Fifth Day

Today’s session was delivered by Amandeep Singh Walia to us, who is being serving Infosys from 12 years and has been working upon many projects. He has done his B.tech and masters from Punjabi University, Patiala.

The main subject for today’s discussion is Agile Development. We are acquainted with many S/W models like Classical and Iterative Waterfall, RAD Model, Spiral etc.

The flow of many IT sectors is as:

  1. Core Dev
  2. Administration & Production Development
  3. Maintainance

The main development model he discussed today was Agile. It means fast, i.e it is quickly adaptable and flexible.

Agile Development = Incremental + Iterative Development.

In incremental, what happens is testing or development of all the modules incrementally.

He has told us about service based (Infosys) and Product based (Google) companies.

What differs agile from other models is a term Sprints.

agi.png

Sprints are a kind of time setting criteria. Example, if there is a task for migrating API from one platform to other. THe set sprint is for 2 weeks. The basic schedule went like this:

M1= 15 API  (2 sprints)

M2= 20 API  (2 sprints)

M3= 25 API  (2 sprints)

Then here the velocity is increasing and hence efficiency will rise. As the sprints are same but the work related to migration of API’s enhanced.  After this a shippable product (can be API in this case) is ready.

Apart from this as we are having a project manager, In agile, we are having a Scrum master who facilitates and holds everything together. Here, the meetings happens twice a day. One at the start (about the target to be achieved at the end of the day) and other in the end (about the progress made.)

ScrumMasterRole

Agile development is also named as least documentation model.

Then he discussed about administartion and  Production Support. Here, we got to know about a new term i.e Service Level Agreement (SLA).

SLA is a contract between service providers and user which depicts about the type of service provided by the company. A user can report an incident (If any function is not working properly). Another term he discussed about was,

Devops: It’s basically another level of Agile Development which emphasises on collaboration of Development and Operation. These two terms are not seloid in Devops. It’s the one used to fasten the process of developing product and make it reachable to the users.

ghj Quality Assurance (QA) + Dev + Operation

Rest he told us about some key points about:

Unified Payment Interface (UPI) : It’s an interface made for transferring funds from one bank account to other.

He has given some of the examples related to cloud based services:

  1. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): OS, Firewalls, Router etc.
  2.  Platform as a Service (PaaS): Web Server, App Server
  3. Software as a Service (SaaS): Facebook, Book my show app etc. Even MS Office i.e Office 365 but it is paid.

He has told that even NoSQL Databases are emerging nowadays, eg: ArangoDB, CouchDB etc. (+Someone can add more 🙂)

P.S: It was a pretty nice discussion but I was expecting something related to the company, placement scenerio, things on which we need to work upon to enhance our skills and much more ….

 

 

 

 

Fourth Day

Hello, all the Bloggers and my lovely readers, Today’s topic was a bit familiar. I have already written some of the blogs related to the subject. It was none other than LaTeX.

So, I will gonna mention some of the highlighted points I wasn’t acquainted about before.

Mostly all are used to MS Word for any kind of documentation. Starting from the simple formatting to creating sections, subsections and so on …

The process for decorating data is basically called as typesetting. There are many approaches to typeset a document. Example, MS Word, Adobe Indesign etc. One of them is through LaTeX. It is designed by Donald Knuth and released in 1978.

There isn’t any fight between MS and Latex. It’s just the matter of choice and comfort. Both are having their respective cons and pros.

I got to know an advantage of LaTeX over others, i.e Hyphenation.

hy.png

There are many tex related softwares like TexStudio, Texlive, Miktex etc.

Texlive is having full packages as compared to Miktex.  Plus we get to know about Raster and vector images.

rf.png

Raster images (png, jpg, gif etc) are one which tends to distort on zooming while vector images (pdf, eps, svg) will remain the same.

P.S: One can read books by Donald Knuth to clear the basics.

 

 

Third Day

Gear up guys, Today’s topic was all about Mobile Application Development delivered by Vigas Deep and Shaina to us. Both are really successful in their respective fields.

The story was revolving around React Native today. I have already mentioned about Phonegap, Cordova, and Ionic in my previous blogs. All of these lead to a hybrid app (that is the copy of a site to mobile.) These uses basic HTML, CSS components to make a site and then rendering to the application.

Whereas, React Native uses basic native components of Ios, Android to render the mobile application.

hyv

Before React native there was only React which does not use native components. Reactjs is just a javascript library for making UI interfaces.

React JS make use of a language JSX (Javascript Extended), it basically wraps JS and XML into the same file. It works on the frontend of React Native.

Eg. Even Instagram and Facebook uses React Native.

Now the question arises which one is better? React Native or Ionic?

Well, Can you have one out of bike or car? No, so it depends upon the user requirements. One can go for both and can find out the best for them.

Though React Native is one which I would prefer as it’s the one which saves time (as you don’t need to recompile and rebuild again and again.) It just refreshes and compiles the changes done, not the whole application. It’s a native one can both be user and developer friendly.

For trying your hands on an app made in both Ionic and React Native, you may visit here:

Todo App

So, try your hands on both and then pick one of your choice. 🙂

 

 

Second Day

Today’s session was all about Cloud Computing delivered by Prof. Vivek Thapar to us.

Apart from this Sehra Sir has discussed about Rest API’s. Rest stands for Restful State Transfer. These are used by many such as LinkedIn, Google, Amazon and Twitter. Rest API’s allows the users to connect and interact with cloud services.

Cloud Computing : Cloud computing is the process of storing, retrieving, accessing your data from some other server. It’s a vast concept which is used nowadays at a huge extent. Example: Amazon Web Services (AWS)

                                        Evolution

cloud

Cluster Computing: It’s the group of computers being combined together to serve the purpose. It follows master-slave phenomenon, where one PC is assigned to be a Master and it got the input and distributes the work among other slaves to get the job done. Clusters communicate through “Message Passing”. eg: If a person wants as 80 GB RAM server and we are having all 4GB PC. Then we can combine 20 computers to get the requirement fulfilled.

clus.jpg

Grid Computing: It’s the collection of various clusters. It can be homogeneous or heterogeneous. It’s having a demerit in connecting various clusters through WAN. It will slow down the process because of less speed.

Cloud Computing: In short it’s,

Cluster Computing + Grid Computing + Virtualization

Virtualization in Cloud Computing stands for providing a virtual environment on a system such as server, OS, storage device etc.

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                                               Big-Data

Big Data is another component related to Cloud Computing. Both the terms complete each other. What is Big Data? Everyone has given their own definitions.

Basically, Big-Data is an extremely large data set which can not be processed by traditional data mining techniques. Big Data is having 3V’s : Velocity, Volume and Variety.

Sky Computing: It’s a term used for multiple clouds.

                                                        NIST Model for Cloud Computing

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Here is an audio made by me to describe this National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) model: Sound-Cloud

There are many other open source cloud platforms like: Open Stack, Apache Cloud Stack etc.

                                    Multitenancy

Multitenancy refers to a software architecture which provides access of a single software to various users at a time. Here, tenants refers to group of users having access.

Saas and Iaas uses multitenancy by giving access of same software and Hardware among all the users.